Development History of Natural Rubber and Planting Patterns in Various Countries
1、 Overview of natural rubber
The natural rubber we usually refer to refers to the elastic solid material obtained from natural rubber latex collected from Brazilian rubber trees through processing processes such as solidification and drying.
The Brazilian rubber tree is native to the western region of Marayue in the Amazon River basin of Brazil. It enjoys high temperatures, high humidity, calm winds, and fertile soil. It has been spread to more than 40 countries and regions in Asia, Africa, Oceania, and Latin America, and is mainly cultivated in Southeast Asia.
Natural rubber is a natural polymer compound mainly composed of polyisoprene, with a rubber hydrocarbon content of over 90% and a small amount of protein, fatty acids, sugar, and ash.
Natural rubber products can be divided into standard rubber, cigarette rubber, latex, and crepe rubber.
2、 Development History of Natural Rubber
Ancient natural rubber:
The history of human use of natural rubber is very long, dating back to 1600 BC. Like rubber balls from Central America, waterproof fabrics and rubber boots from indigenous Brazil.
Application of rubber after geographical discovery:
In 1736, French explorer La Condomin brought natural rubber from the Amazon rainforest to France and handed it over to the French Academy of Sciences for research. The industrial community has also developed a strong interest in rubber, which was used in the early days to manufacture various raincoats, boots, and raincloths.
Technological innovation brings about a surge in demand. The rise of South American rubber planting industry:
In 1844, American inventor Goodyear developed rubber vulcanization technology, making rubber a truly practical industrial product. In 1888, British man Dunlop invented the world's first pneumatic tire. After entering the 20th century, the automotive industry entered a stage of rapid development, and the demand for natural rubber increased significantly.
During World War I, the strong demand for rubber in the United States further accelerated the artificial cultivation of rubber. During the 10 years after the war, the rubber planting industry in South America reached its historical peak. The largest city in the Amazon River Basin, Manaus City in Brazil, once became the center of the world's natural rubber industry.
The new rubber planting pattern led by Southeast Asia from west to east:
In 1876, the British man Wickham quietly transported 70000 rubber tree seeds out of Brazil, sent them to England, and cultivated them into seedlings. Afterwards, the British sent the seedlings to Sri Lanka and Malaysia, gradually multiplying into rubber forests and spreading to surrounding countries. The continuous tapping method invented by British scientist Ridley, who was then the director of the Singapore Botanical Garden, greatly improved the production efficiency of the rubber industry in Asia.
In the 1930s, a major outbreak of yellow leaf disease occurred in South America, which lost its dominant position in producing natural rubber and shifted the focus of natural rubber production to Southeast Asia.
In 1939, World War II once again boosted the demand for rubber and also cut off normal rubber trade. The desire for resources such as oil, ore, and rubber led Japan to decide to go south and carry out an aggressive war against Southeast Asia.
The evolution of the pattern of several major rubber producing countries in recent and contemporary times:
Indonesia is the birthplace of large-scale cultivation of natural rubber trees, and was the world's top rubber producing country before World War II. However, due to the war and nearly 20 years of domestic political turmoil, production decreased. Currently, Indonesia's planting area still ranks first in the world.
Malaysia ranked first in the world's rubber production after World War II, but in the 1990s, due to the substitution of oil palm, its planting area and production began to decline, and its leading position was replaced by Thailand.
In order to improve the yield and competitiveness of rubber per unit area, Thailand has been persistently planting for over 40 years since the 1960s, and the yield has rapidly increased. Since 1991, it has ranked first in the world and has been consistently maintained.
The earliest three leaf rubber tree in China was introduced from Singapore, which was still part of Malaysia, in 1904. To meet the needs of national defense and economic development, China's large-scale cultivation and development were carried out after the establishment of the People's Republic of China.
Rubber processing equipment:
75L dual hydraulic rubber mixer